An open channel is a Twitch-style public chat where users can easily join without permission. Sendbird Chat SDK now supports two operation systems for open channels, which are classic and dynamic partitioning. These two systems offer the same features and functions, except that dynamic partitioning allows open channels to accommodate a massive number of users.
Classic vs. Dynamic partitioning
Classic open channels are the original open channels Sendbird has been providing, and a single classic open channel can handle up to 1,000 participants.
Note: Sendbird applications created before December 15, 2020, are using classic open channels.
On the other hand, dynamic partitioning open channels are designed to accommodate an even larger number of users using a set number of subchannels, starting from 2,000 to 60,000 participants. This new system, called dynamic partitioning, enables flexible scaling of open channels by creating or merging subchannels within the open channels and evenly allocating participants among the subchannels while providing a seamless and well-paced chat experience to all users.
Note: The classic open channels will be deprecated by the end of March 2021 but the classic channels created before the deprecation will remain and function the same way. Meanwhile, all Chat SDK users will be automatically migrated to the new dynamic partitioning system when the deprecation takes place. If you wish to convert to dynamic partitioning open channels beforehand, contact our support team.
Learn more about how dynamic partitioning open channel operates in the Open channel guide of Platform API.
Create a channel
An open channel is ideal for use cases that require a small and static number of channel. To create an open channel from the Sendbird Dashboard, do the following:
- In your dashboard, go to the Chat > Open channels, and then click Create channel at the top-right corner.
- In the dialog box that appears, specify the name, unique URL, cover image, and custom type of a channel.
You can also create a channel on demand or dynamically via the Chat SDK or the Platform API.
You can also append information by passing additional parameters.
List of arguments
Specifies the channel topic, or the name of the channel.
Specifies the cover image URL of the channel, or uploads a file for the cover image.
Specifies additional channel information such as a long description of the channel or
Specifies the custom channel type which is used for channel grouping.
Note: By default, the Allow creating open channels option is turned on which means that open channels and group channels can be created by any user with Sendbird Chat SDK. This may grant access to unwanted data or operations, leading to potential security concerns. To manage your access control settings, you can turn on or off each option in Settings > Application > Security > Access control list on Sendbird Dashboard.
Enter a channel
A user must enter an open channel to receive messages. The user can enter up to 10 open channels at once, which are valid only within a current connection. So if the disconnected user is reconnected to Sendbird server, the user must re-enter the channels to continue receiving messages.
When a user who is already a participant in an open channel moves the app to the background, the user will be disconnected from Sendbird server. But when the user's app returns to the foreground, the Chat SDK will automatically re-enter the user to the participating channel.
Exit a channel
To stop receiving messages from the open channel, you must exit the channel.
Retrieve a list of channels
You can obtain a list of all open channels by creating a
Next() method returns a list of
Retrieve a channel by URL
Since a channel URL is a unique identifier of an open channel, you can use a URL to retrieve a channel instance. It is important to remember that a user must enter the channel to send or receive messages within it.
Note: We recommend that you store channel URLs to handle their lifecycle or state changes in your app. For example, if a user disconnects from Sendbird server by temporarily switching to another app, you can provide a smooth restoration of the user's state using a stored URL to fetch the appropriate channel instance, then re-entering the user into the channel.
Send a message
Upon entering an open channel, a user can send messages of the following types:
A text message sent by a user
A binary file message sent by a user
In addition to these message types, you can further subclassify a message by specifying its
customType property. This custom type takes on the form of a
String and can be used to search or filter messages. By assigning arbitrary string to the
data property, you can also set custom font size, font type or
JSON object. It allows you to append information to your message and customize message categorization.
Through the callback function of the
SendUserMessage() method, Sendbird server always notifies whether your message has been successfully sent to the channel. When there is a delivery failure due to network issues, an exception is returned through the callback function.
A user can also send binary files through the Chat SDK. The two ways to send a binary file are: sending the file itself, or sending a URL.
Sending a raw file means you're uploading it to Sendbird server where it can be downloaded in client apps. When you upload a file directly to the server, there is a size limit imposed on the file depending on your plan. You can see the limit in your dashboard and adjust it with our sales team.
The other option is to send a file hosted on your server. You can pass the file's URL, which represents its location, as an argument to a parameter. In this case, your file is not hosted on Sendbird server and it can only be downloaded from your own server. When you send a file message with a URL, there is no limit on the file size since it's not directly uploaded to Sendbird server.
Note: To send metadata along with a file, you can populate the
Receive messages through a channel handler
Messages can be received by adding a channel handler. A received BaseMessage object is one of the following three message types.
A text message sent by a user
A binary file message sent by a user
A text message sent by an admin through the Platform API
UNIQUE_HANDLER_ID is a unique identifier to register multiple concurrent handlers.
Load previous messages
After creating a query instance from the
CreatePreviousMessageListQuery() method and using the
Load() method which returns a list of message objects, you can retrieve a set number of previous messages in an open channel. With the returned list, you can display the past messages in your UI once they have loaded
limit parameter (30 in the above sample code) determines how many messages should be included in a returned list. A
PreviousMessageListQuery instance itself does pagination according to the value of the
limit parameter and internally manages a token to retrieve the next page in the result set. Each time the
Load() method is called, the instance retrieves a set number of messages in the next page, and then updates the value of the token to complete the current call and prepare a next call.
If you create a new
PreviousMessageListQuery instance and call the
Load() method, a set number of the most recent messages are retrieved because its token has nothing to do with that of the existing instance. So we recommend that you create a single query instance and store it as a member variable for traversing through the entire message history.
Note: Before calling the
Load()method again, you must receive a success callback from the server first.
Load messages by timestamp
You can query a set number of previous messages starting from the timestamp of the earliest message.
Note: The number of results may be larger than the set limit when there are multiple messages with the same timestamp as the earliest message.
Delete a message
A user can delete any messages sent by themselves. An error is returned if a user attempts to delete the messages of other participants. Also operators of a channel can delete any messages in the channel.
OnMessageDeleted() of a channel handler will be invoked after a message is deleted, and the result also notified to all other participants in the channel.
Retrieve a list of participants
Participants are online users who are currently receiving all messages from the open channel.
Retrieve the latest information on participants
To retrieve the latest and updated information on each online participant in an open channel, you need another
UserListQuery instance for the channel. Like the Retrieve a list of participants section above, create a query instance using the
openChannel.CreateParticipantListQuery(), and then call its
Next() method consecutively to retrieve the latest.
If you want to retrieve the online status of users at the application level, create another
UserListQuery instance using the
SendBirdClient.CreateUserListQuery(), and use its
Next() method to retrieve instead.
By calling the
ConnectionStatus at each
User object in a returned list, you can then retrieve the current connection status of each user. The
user.ConnectionStatus returns one of the following two values:
The user is not connected to Sendbird server.
The user is connected to Sendbird server.
Note: If you need to keep track of the connection status of some users in real time, we recommend that you call periodically the
Next()method of a
UserListQueryinstance with its
userIdsFilterfilter specified, perhaps in intervals of one minute or more.
Retrieve a list of banned or muted users
You can also create a query to get a list of muted or banned users in an open channel. This query is only available for users who are registered as operators of the open channel.